Weapon Outlawed By A 1993 Agreement

The UN Security Council ordered the dismantling of Iraq`s chemical weapons stockpiles in 1991. In 1998, UNSCOM inspectors had held responsible for the destruction of 88,000 filled and unfilled chemical munitions, more than 690 tons of bulk armed and chemical materials, about 4,000 tons of precursor chemicals and 980 parts of major production facilities. [41] UNSCOM inspectors resigned in 1998. The treaty also deals with carbon compounds, referred to in the treaty as « discrete organic chemicals, » most of which have moderately high direct toxicity or can be easily converted into compounds whose toxicity is sufficient for practical use as a chemical weapon. [19] These are all carbonaceous compounds with the exception of long-chain polymers, oxides, sulphides and metal carbonates such as organophosphates. The OPCW must be informed of any plant that produces (or plans to produce) more than 200 tonnes per year, or 30 tonnes if the chemical contains phosphorus, sulphur or fluorine, and may inspect them unless the plant produces only explosives or hydrocarbons. When Iraq joined the CWC in 2009, it declared, according to OPCW Director General Rogelio Pfirter, « two bunkers of filled and unfilled chemical weapons ammunition, some precursors and five former chemical weapons production facilities. » [30] The entrances to the bunker were sealed with 1.5 meters of reinforced concrete in 1994 under the supervision of UNSCOM. [44] In 2012, the plan to destroy chemical weapons was still being developed in the face of considerable difficulties. [38] [44] In 2014, ISIS took control of the site. [45] In 1980, negotiators decided to create the ad hoc chemical weapons CD to « define, through substantive consideration, issues to be addressed in the course of the negotiations. » In 1984, the CD mandated the Committee to begin negotiations on the prohibition of chemical weapons, and this year the Committee began to develop a convention as a « rolling text », the first time this method of negotiation has been used in a disarmament treaty. The changing international political climate in the late 1980s and early 1990s enabled the Committee to make great strides. The use of chemical weapons in the Iran-Iraq war and the possibility of using them in the Gulf War gave an additional boost to the negotiations. The Chemical Weapons Convention requires States Parties to declare in writing to the OPCW their chemical weapons stockpiles, chemical weapons production facilities (CWPF), relevant chemical industry facilities and other weapons-related information.

This must be done within 30 days of the entry into force of the Convention for each Member State. More recently, the ICRC has expressed concern about the interest of police, security and armed forces in using toxic chemicals – mainly dangerous anaesthetics – as law enforcement weapons designed to render targets unconscious or severely incapable. These substances have been described as « incapable chemical agents ». Based on several treaties that ended the First World War (without the knowledge of the Treaty of Versailles [1919] between the Allies and Germany), the Protocol explicitly prohibited the use of suffocating, poisonous or other gases and bacteriological weapons in time of war. However, the Protocol does not prohibit the development, production or stockpiling of such weapons. For this reason, the Protocol was subsequently supplemented by the Biological Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) of 1993. .